Architecte 3d Ultimate Crack 31 [UPD]
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The AE method allows the detection and location of damage using specific localisation algorithms. Knowledge of the propagation velocity and attenuation of the AE wave is required. However, contrary to metallic material, the anisotropic nature of composite material gives a large range of propagation velocity due to fibre orientation. Moreover, the attenuation of the AE waves is more complex than in a homogeneous material . In addition, in a same composite material, wave attenuation is more significant in cracked than in healthy state, which will complicate the signal processing after few damage modes have developed, especially for the amplitude distribution. Qualifying damage started first in 2D composites and Mehan and Mullin in 1968  managed to identify three basic failure mechanisms: (i) fiber fracture; (ii) matrix cracking; (iii) and fibre/matrix interfacial debonding. The authors reported the application of AE in composites in 1971 , discriminating audible types for these three basic damage modes using an AE system. After forty years, Godin et al.  conducted mapping of cross-ply glass/epoxy composites during tensile tests. They have classified four different acoustic signatures of failure and determined four conventional analyses of AE signals.
All of these studies show the difficulty of identifying damage modes for 2D composites and becomes more complicated for 3D woven composites. Only a small amount of investigation has been reported for monitoring evolution of damage and ultimate failure in 3D woven composites. Li et al.  studied AE signals for 3D non-crimp orthogonal woven glass/epoxy composites from cluster analysis point of view. These clusters are based on different parameters of peak amplitude, peak frequency, and RA value (rise time divided by peak amplitude). From their investigation, cluster 1 (low frequency, low amplitude events) and 2 (moderate frequency, low amplitude) is correlated to matrix cracking, cluster 3 (low to moderate frequency with high amplitude) with fibre and matrix de-bonding, and cluster 4 (high frequency) with delamination and fibre breakage. Lomov et al.  investigated AE response in 3D non-crimp orthogonal woven carbon/epoxy composites undergone damage.
where ΔE is the strain energy released due to the cracking formation. This is determined by subtracting the strain energy density of a cracked cell from the strain energy density of non-cracked cell while ΔA represents the area of the cracked surface. Strain energy release rate actually defines the potential locations for crack formation along the yarn or its cross section. Cracks are more likely to form in locations where the strain energy release rate is high.
Figure 3 is a graph to illustrate the theory behind the finite fracture mechanics. The toughness of the material for a specific cracking mechanism (Gc) is a material property which is constant while the energy release rate increases with increasing applied stress/strain. Once the energy release rate associated with a specific cracking mechanism exceeds the critical value, crack formation and damage evolution starts.
On more issue regarding the fracture of composite materials is that the fracture occurs due to multiplication of cracking events rather than growth of a single crack. Therefore, the fracture response of composite materials is more like discrete instantaneous crack propagation. For further details about the application of finite fracture mechanics of composite materials, the reader is referred to .
To determine which constituent part of the 3D woven will experience cracking in the case of uniaxial tension, strain energy density components are calculated for the 3D AI woven composites unit cell when applying 1% strain along the weft direction. The finite element model is run using the COMSOL Multi-physics software package. Figure 4 shows that the transverse component eTT of the strain energy density is the highest when compared to the longitudinal eLL and shear eLT components. This implies that the strain energy release rate for the transverse component is the one that leads to matrix cracking in the weft yarn under this loading condition. In addition, having a constant energy release rate along the whole yarn length, it suggests that there is no preferable location within the yarn for the crack to start from. This also means that once a crack is initiated in the yarn, it grows instantaneously through the thickness and along the whole yarn length. The complete study of damage mechanisms is well explained and characterised in references [43,44].
(a) Strain energy release rate along weft yarn (TT: Transverse component; LT: shear component; LL: axial component); (b) crack on a warp yarn cross section (Transverse crack).
Matrix cracking is a phenomenon that generates a motion which is essentially in plane. The motion of the crack faces is parallel to the plane of the specimen. It can thus be expected that matrix cracks will generate AE waves which contain a predominant extensional mode. Fibre fracture follows the same general behaviour and should therefore also be characterised by a large extensional mode .
(a) Source function used: at time zero the force step up from 0 to a nominal value 1, and then return to 0 at 2 μs; (b) two-point source force to simulate the energy release by the transverse crack.
Snapshot of the MP-FEM simulation of guided waves generate by a pair of point forces simulating an acoustic emission by the transverse crack in a 3D angle interlock composite tensile specimen at (a) 10 μs; (b) 20 μs; (c) 30 μs; (d) 40 μs.
The simulated AE signal caused by the simulated transverse crack excitation as captured at PWAS#1, 2, and 3 is shown in Figure 8. The magnitude of the received signal from PWAS#3 (in green) decreased dramatically due the damping effect introduced in the model.
The Fourier spectrum of the Figure 9 signals is shown in Figure 10. The frequency spectra for DWT levels 1 through 5 are centered at about 68 kHz, 120 kHz, 200 kHz, 340 kHz, and 650 kHz, respectively. At frequencies 68 kHz, 120 kHz, and 200 kHz (Morlet wavelet levels 1 and 2), three modes exist, the fundamental symmetric mode (S0), the fundamental anti-symmetric mode (A0), and the fundamental shear mode (SH0). However, with the PWAS receiver geometry and properties, the SH mode cannot be caught by these sensors . Moreover, based on the tuning study, at 68 kHz the amplitude of the A0 mode is much higher than the S0 mode, and its travel speed is slower. At 120 kHz, the amplitude of A0 and S0 are almost the same, and at 200 kHz, the amplitude of the S0 is higher than the A0. To conclude, the component at low frequency (below 140 kHz) is dominated by the fundamental anti-symmetric mode A0. At 340 kHz (Morlet wavelet level 3), four modes are existent, S0, A0, A1 and S1; at 650 kHz (Morlet wavelet level 4), six modes are present, S0, S1, S2, A0, A1, and A2. Therefore, at these frequencies, the distinction of the different wave packets and the signal processing are very complex. Moreover, the amplitude is distributed such that it is the highest in level 1 and lowest in level 5 as shown in Figure 9. The FFT of the original signal shows that the amplitude of the signal is higher for the frequency lower than 160 kHz, which mean that the transverse crack develops more flexural (i.e., A0) than extensional (i.e., S0) motion.
However, Surgeon and Wevers  mentioned that matrix cracks will generate AE waves which contain a predominant extensional mode (i.e., S0 mode). It might be explained by the symmetry of the transverse crack, which is maybe not the case in our experiments.
Typical experimental AE waveforms and Fourier Transform from a transverse crack in 3D AI recorded from (a,b) PWAS#1; (c,d) PWAS#2; (e,f) PWAS#3.
In this particular example, the transverse crack occurs closer to PWAS#2 than the other sensors. This signal looks sharper and stronger than those obtained by PWAS#1 and #3. Masmoudi et al.  classified these very energetic signals with amplitude above 94 dB to fibre breaking. However, in theory, no fibre breakage should occur, only transverse crack in the warp yarn should develop as previously simulated. In the next section, the stress amplification factor (SAF) is introduced to explain this typical fibre breakage waveform. The amplitudes of this particular event are 96, 98, 81 dB for PWAS#1, #2, and #3, respectively. The amplitude decreases with the travel length due to the high damping coefficient in this 3D AI composite materials.
In the near future, more work needs to be done on (a) calibrating the MP-FEM modelling of guided wave for accurate representation of physical phenomenon; (b) simulate the real energy release of crack growth using XFEM or VCCT model; (c) better understand the multi-modal guided wave propagation in complex 3D woven composite plates and identify more effective wave-tuning methods and signal processing algorithm for damage identification and localisation. A complete study on the guided wave propagation and the attenuation effect is also required in order to increase the accuracy of the results. 2b1af7f3a8