While the COVID-19 pandemic showed us the healing power of science, it also highlighted the inequities in our world. The pandemic has revealed weaknesses in all areas of society and underlined the urgency of creating sustainable well-being societies committed to achieving equitable health now and for future generations without breaching ecological limits. The present design of the economy leads to inequitable distribution of income, wealth and power, with too many people still living in poverty and instability. A well-being economy has human well-being, equity and ecological sustainability as its goals. These goals are translated into long-term investments, well-being budgets, social protection and legal and fiscal strategies. Breaking these cycles of destruction for the planet and human health requires legislative action, corporate reform and individuals to be supported and incentivized to make healthy choices.
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Unusually hot or cold temperatures can result in prolonged extreme weather events like summer heat waves (see the Heat Waves indicator) or winter cold spells. Heat waves can lead to illness and death, particularly among older adults, the very young, and other vulnerable populations (see the Heat-Related Deaths and Heat-Related Illnesses indicators).1 People can also die from exposure to extreme cold (hypothermia) (see the Cold-Related Deaths indicator). In addition, prolonged exposure to excessive heat and cold can damage crops and injure or kill livestock. Extreme heat can lead to power outages as heavy demands for air conditioning strain the power grid, while extremely cold weather increases the need for heating fuel.
The data for this indicator are based on measurements from weather stations managed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Figures 1 and 2 come from the U.S. Climate Extremes Index, which is based on a smaller group of long-term weather stations that are tracked by the National Centers for Environmental Information and referred to as the U.S. Historical Climatology Network. Figures 3 and 4 use data from a somewhat larger set of stations tracked by the National Centers for Environmental Information, known as the Global Historical Climatology Network. Figure 5 uses National Weather Service data processed by Meehl et al. (2009).9 All of these weather station records are available online at: www.ncdc.noaa.gov, and information about the Climate Extremes Index can be found at: www.ncdc.noaa.gov/extremes/cei.
Groundhog Day was considered a box-office success on its release, earning over $105 million to become one of the highest-grossing films of 1993. It also received generally positive reviews. Reviewers were consistent in praise for the film's successful melding of highly sentimental and deeply cynical moments and for the philosophical message beneath the comedy. It received multiple award nominations and won a BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay. For all its success, the film marked the end of Ramis's and Murray's long collaborative partnership, which produced films like Caddyshack (1980) and Ghostbusters (1984). The pair did not speak after filming until shortly before Ramis's death in 2014. The film was a showcase for Murray; previously seen only as a comic actor, his performance led to more serious lead roles in critically acclaimed films.
In the years since its release, the film has grown in esteem and is often considered to be among the greatest films of the 1990s and one of the greatest comedy movies ever. It also had a significant impact on popular culture: the term Groundhog Day, meaning a monotonous, unpleasant, and repetitive situation, became part of the English lexicon. Buddhist, Christian, and Jewish scholars have analyzed the film as a religious allegory. Groundhog Day is also credited for the mainstream acceptance of comedy films featuring fantasy genre elements. In 2006, the United States Library of Congress selected the film for preservation in the National Film Registry. Groundhog Day has been adapted into a 2016 musical and a 2019 video game sequel, Groundhog Day: Like Father Like Son.
On February 1, television weatherman Phil Connors reassures his Pittsburgh viewers that an approaching blizzard will miss Western Pennsylvania. Alongside his new producer Rita Hanson and cameraman Larry, Phil travels to Punxsutawney for his annual coverage of the Groundhog Day festivities. He makes no secret of his contempt for the assignment, the small town, and the "hicks" who live there, asserting that he will soon be leaving his station for a new job.
Murray and Ramis had a longstanding friendship and collaborative relationship, having worked together since 1974 on many projects and five films to great success, including Meatballs (1979), Caddyshack, and Ghostbusters (1984). Rubin did not write the character as particularly nasty, aiming for a normal person in an extranormal situation. In casting Murray, Phil was portrayed as more cynical, sarcastic, and detached, but not so malicious that audiences would no longer support him. Rubin wanted Kevin Kline for the part, believing Murray did not have the necessary acting ability. Ramis reassured Rubin, saying, "Don't worry. This is what Bill Murray can do. He can be that nasty and still make you like him." MacDowell agreed, saying "He's a jerk but he makes you laugh."
The script continued to change during filming. When Tobolowsky arrived for his first scene, he was handed a new script. He estimated that about a third of it was different from his original copy. For example, early in the film, Phil ends his first loop by breaking a pencil to see if it is repaired the following day. A more elaborate scene was filmed in which Phil spray-painted the walls of the room he wakes up in, destroyed objects, and gave himself a Mohawk hairstyle. The scene took three days to film and was costly; Ramis discarded it for something quieter, simpler, and less manic. The revised script also featured more of Phil's misadventures, and his suicide attempts were set closer to the end. These scenes were moved forward in favor of a long third act showing Phil embracing life.
Murray was hesitant about shooting the final scene in which Phil awakens next to Rita, as how or whether Phil was dressed would affect the tone of the reveal that he had escaped the time loop. Ramis polled the crew, who were split between Phil wearing the same clothes as the previous night and different clothes that suggested the pair had been intimate. A young female crew member served as the tiebreaker, ruling that they should be wearing the same clothes as "anything else... will ruin the movie." As MacDowell's and Murray's characters venture outside the Cherry Tree Inn in the film's denouement, the scripted line "Let's live here" is tempered by a Murray ad lib, "We'll rent to start."
The tone was described as inconsistent, and the film poorly paced, some scenes going on too long. Owen Glieberman compared it unfavorably to another time-travel film, Back to the Future (1985), which he found more cleverly structured. He described some scenes as isolated comedy sketches rather than part of a larger narrative. Thomson said that the repetition of scenes worked against the film, making it seem as if no progress was being made. Hinson countered that minor alterations to the scenes kept them interesting as part of a "brilliantly imaginative" and "complex" script. Some reviewers said that the humor was often mild, eliciting small chuckles instead of outright hilarity, although Hinson found it to be "wildly funny." The Hollywood Reporter wrote that it offered a range of comedy and satire, all tempered by the love story between Phil and Rita. Critics highlighted the deeper story behind the comedy. Ebert called it a comedy on the surface but with an underlying thoughtfulness. Maslin said that her initial impression was of a lightweight fare, but it became "strangely affecting."
Despite its relative success, a sequel was ruled out by November 1993. Groundhog Day was one of the films credited with helping to reverse Columbia's failures at the box office, alongside the 1992 films Bram Stoker's Dracula, A Few Good Men and A League of Their Own. Shortly after its release, author Richard A. Lupoff threatened legal action against the filmmakers, alleging the film copied his short story "12:01 P.M." and its associated 1990 short film adaptation about a man stuck in a time loop. The case was never formally filed as the film's production company refused to support legal action. Similarly, author Leon Arden attempted legal action, claiming the film was a copy of his novel The Devil's Trill, later turned into a script that was unsuccessfully pitched to Columbia Pictures about a man repeating April 15. The judge ruled against Arden.
Murray initially hated the finished Groundhog Day. In a 1993 interview, he said that he wanted to focus on the comedy and the underlying theme of people repeating their lives out of fear of change. Ramis wanted to focus on the redeeming power of love. Even so, Murray agreed that Ramis had ultimately been right to do so. The film marked the end of Ramis and Murray's nearly 20-year long partnership that among other things, had created films like Caddyshack, Stripes (1981), and Ghostbusters. After filming concluded, Murray stopped speaking to Ramis. He never contacted Ramis, and refused to speak about him in interviews. Ramis openly spoke about Murray, both criticizing him and discussing his dreams where the pair were once again friends. Some of their close acquaintances, including producer Michael Shamberg, speculated that Murray had grown disillusioned with the assumption that his best work only came in collaboration with Ramis, or that Ramis was responsible for Murray's public persona. Ramis said that he could make Murray as funny as possible, and in return, Murray's improvisational skills could save even the most lackluster of scripts. 2b1af7f3a8