Ls Land Issue 26 Hawaiian Breeze --
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The need to increase the resolution of sea and lake breezes models to better understand the influence of the different physical factors on the sea and lake breezes is apparent. The present lack of suitable high-resolution sea-breeze and lake-breeze numerical models is also apparent. The results of this survey are intended to be a resource for numerical modelling, coastal air quality, and wind power studies.
A number of numerical studies of sea and lake breezes have been conducted in recent years. The numerical models used so far include the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Contour Centered Finite Difference (CCFD) model (Sperber and Gordon, 1989; Elsner and Gordon, 1989; Gordon and McElwain, 1991; Gordon, 1994; Gordon and McElwain, 1999), the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research/NCAR Continental and Sea Ice Ocean Model (CONCISE) model (Mulligan, 1993; Mulligan and Gordon, 1997), the Norwegian Numerical Model of the Ocean and Atmosphere (NOMA) model (Hagen, 1988; Hagen and Gordon, 1992), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) model (Moe, 1997), the High-resolution East Anglian Sea Ice and Atmospheric Model (HESYACC) model (Gordon et al., 1998), the National Center for Atmospheric Research/NCAR Modeling of the Ocean and Atmospheric Environment (MOEA) model (Roth et al., 1996), and the international European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model (Schubert et al., 1994). These models have been used to simulate, analyse, and forecast sea and lake breezes and are capable of predicting the predominant direction, intensity, and length of the sea breeze and lake breeze for a given location and time period.
Numerical studies of sea and lake breezes are reviewed. The modelled dependence of sea-breeze and lake-breeze characteristics on the land surface sensible heat flux, ambient geostrophic wind, atmospheric stability and moisture, water body dimensions, terrain height and slope, Coriolis parameter, surface roughness length, and shoreline curvature is discussed. Consensus results on the influence of these geophysical variables on sea and lake breezes are synthesized as well as current gaps in our understanding. A brief history of numerical modelling, an overview of recent high-resolution simulations, and suggestions for future research related to sea and lake breezes are also presented. The results of this survey are intended to be a resource for numerical modelling, coastal air quality, and wind power studies.
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